Company Blog

How Does a Zurich Instruments Lock-In Amplifier Work?


Have you ever wondered what is going on inside your Zurich Instruments lock-in amplifier? Lock-in amplifiers enable precise measurements of small signals buried in noise. While analog instruments have been used for decades, the development of analog-to-digital converters with high speed, resolution, and linearity has more recently enabled the realization...

Quantum Material Characterization for Streamlined Qubit Development


In this webinar, we covered the material properties that are most important to consider when developing qubits with longer coherence times and looked into how to characterize these materials accurately and efficiently. By focusing on the fundamental properties of the materials, simpler fabrication methods and experimental setups can be used...

Efficient Generation of Dynamic Pulses


Solid-state qubits are typically characterized and operated by a series of very short pulses. To achieve a high-fidelity control, it is necessary to generate many sequences of them, with very accurate timing. In this blog post, I will show how to use the advanced feature set of the HDAWG Arbitrary...

Faster Impedance Measurements at Low Frequency


MFIA Impedance Analyzer

Impedance measurements at frequencies as low as 1 mHz can take a significant amount of time for a multi-point sweep. The MFIA Impedance Analyzer allows for sweeps from 1 mHz to 5 MHz, with a freely selectable number of points up to 100000. In standard mode on the MFIA, a...




经常有用户想了解如何用锁相放大器测量和处理直流信号。常见的需求是对直流信号进行产生和自动扫描,降噪提取,放大输出等操作。因为这属于相对特殊的应用,在进行参数设置时需要注意的地方比较多。在 Jelena 的博文中介绍了用 HF2LI 检测直流信号。在这篇博文中,我将以 MFLI 为例,为大家介绍如何实现这些功能和如何优化参数设置。作为理解参数设置的基础,我们先简要回顾锁相放大器的基本原理。如果想系统学习锁相放大器的原理,可以阅读原理详细介绍, 观看教学视频。



HDAWG 连接示意图

多通道任意波形发生器 HDAWG 具有脉冲计数器升级选件。任意波形发生器模块和脉冲计数器模块可以同时工作。这样 HDAWG 就同时具备了测控信号输出的能力和检测系统响应的能力。HDAWG 的定序器 Sequencer 支持高级定序功能,支持动态跳转。那么,可不可让任意波形发生器的输出序列根据脉冲计数器的数值进行实时动态跳转呢?可以,而且很方便,仅需要在定序程序 sequence 中加入几行代码即可实现。

Discovering the MF-IA Impedance Analyzer Option


The MF-IA option for the MFLI

This blog post introduces the MF-IA Impedance Analyzer option, which can be added to the MFLI Lock-in Amplifier to enhance it with the same impedance analyzer and precision LCR meter functionality as the MFIA Impedance Analyzer. Adding the MF-IA option to your MFLI gives you the ability to measure the...

Characterizing Electrochemical Gas Sensors with Impedance Measurements


Gas sensing with the MFIA

Gas sensing is a topic of broad research interest. Our page on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) shows a good example of application. That example considers an optical investigation to quantitatively assess gas content, achieving extremely low detection limits. In this short blog post, we focus instead on the...

Best Practices in Sensor Characterization and Control - Q&A


Bode plot of the resonance of a sensor

For this webinar we teamed up with Dr. Tomás Manzaneque, whose work focuses on the fabrication, modeling and interfacing of mechanical micro-resonators in different fields of application: examples are rheological sensing, ultra-sensitive mass sensing, passive conditioning of RF signals for the Internet-of-Things communications, and single-cell biopsy. His research interests branch...

Choosing the Best Current Input Range for Impedance Measurements



Auto-ranging is one of the key features of all impedance analyzers. It makes it possible to run a sweep (of frequency, AC amplitude, DC bias, or other parameters of interest) continuously and without manual adjustments of the input ranges. This helps particularly when working with reactive components, whose impedance changes...



MFIA Impedance Analyzer

2021年9月23日,苏黎世仪器举办了一场网络研讨会:“即来自瑞士的顶尖阻抗分析仪: 快速和低速测量两相宜”。此研讨会包含了两部分内容。其一就是直流支撑电容器的ESR和ESL的测试,我们重点讲述了如何通过智能用户补偿,实现低至mOhm和nH数量级的微笑阻抗的测试。其二则为深能级动态能谱检测(DLTS)。在这一部分中,我们展示了如何使用MFIA在us的时间尺度内,测到半导体器件中fF级别电容的变化。我们希望借本次研讨会之际,能与您展开更为深入的交流。

Un'architettura LabVIEW per costruire sistemi DLTS con lo MFIA


MFIA configuration

Questo blog post descrive un codice basato su LabVIEW™ per utilizzare l'analizzatore di impedenza MFIA per effetturare misure di spettroscopia transitoria di livello profondo (DLTS), compreso un template per aggiungere il controllo di un termoregolatore di terze parti. La DLTS è una tecnica potente e comunemente usata per studiare la...

The LabOne Multi-Device Synchronization Feature


Configuration to measure the Hall effect using 2 MFLI Lock-in Amplifiers synchronized with MDS.

In this blog post we want to present a lesser known but very powerful LabOne® tool freely available to all Zurich Instruments users: multi-device synchronization (MDS). Although all Zurich Instruments lock-ins and impedance analyzers are equipped with multiple demodulators either natively or through upgrade options, and most instruments have multiple...

Bell-State Stabilization of Superconducting Qubits with Real-Time Feedback


The surface code which consists of a two-dimensional array of qubits

Bell-state stabilization with real-time feedback is a key milestone for the implementation of surface code [1], which is one of the most promising quantum error correction codes for building large-scale quantum computers [2]. Fundamental requirements for realizing this code are high fidelity and rapid readout of qubits, high fidelity gate...

Impedance Characterization of Wearable Capacitive Sensors



This blog post explains how the Zurich Instruments MFIA can be used to characterise wearable capacitive sensors, and introduces two recently published studies where innovative flexible wearable sensors have been developed which operate on the principle of capacitive sensing. These studies present different approaches to comfortable-to-wear sensors with sensing performance...

Noise Spectral Density Measured with Lock-in Amplifiers


Input Noise

Proper noise characterization is essential in many applications, especially when dealing with tiny signals buried in noise like in nanotechnology, photonics and quantum physics. Noise characteristics of a system are often represented by the noise spectral density in amplitude or power mode, the latter being called power spectral density (PSD), within the frequency range of interest...

A LabVIEW Template for Building DLTS Systems with the MFIA


MFIA configuration

This blog post describes how to get started with writing a LabVIEW™ code to control the MFIA Impedance Analyzer for DLTS measurements. It also includes ideas for independent code for the control of a third-party temperature controller. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is a powerful and commonly used technique to...